Not really, no. The cookbook itself can be copied and modified with any reasonable source control system, and it's history preserved. But the new cookbook still has to be tested, loaded to the chef server, and any references to it for roles, run lists, and attributes used by other cookbooks that relied on it updated. That can be a fairly awkward process, especially since the old cookbook will remain on place on the server and until you explicitly delete it, potentially failing to show unomodifed references.
Now, me? I'd use the "chef-zero" setups to test the new cookbook, locally, on an individual host, using my old tools at https://github.com/nkadel/nkadel-chef-local-wrapper . But that will take some to modify to your local configuration.